# Polygon in vertex representation (VPolygon)

LazySets.VPolygonType
VPolygon{N, VN<:AbstractVector{N}} <: AbstractPolygon{N}

Type that represents a polygon by its vertices.

Fields

• vertices – the list of vertices

Notes

This type assumes that all vertices are sorted in counter-clockwise fashion.

To ensure this property, the constructor of VPolygon runs a convex-hull algorithm on the vertices by default. This also removes redundant vertices. If the vertices are known to be sorted, the flag apply_convex_hull=false can be used to skip this preprocessing.

Examples

A polygon in vertex representation can be constructed by passing the list of vertices. For example, we can build the right triangle

julia> P = VPolygon([[0, 0], [1, 0], [0, 1]]);

julia> P.vertices
3-element Vector{Vector{Int64}}:
[0, 0]
[1, 0]
[0, 1]

Alternatively, a VPolygon can be constructed passing a matrix of vertices, where each column represents a vertex:

julia> M = [0 1 0; 0 0 1.]
2×3 Matrix{Float64}:
0.0  1.0  0.0
0.0  0.0  1.0

julia> P = VPolygon(M);

julia> P.vertices
3-element Vector{Vector{Float64}}:
[0.0, 0.0]
[1.0, 0.0]
[0.0, 1.0]
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LazySets.σMethod
σ(d::AbstractVector, P::VPolygon)

Return a support vector of a polygon in a given direction.

Input

• d – direction
• P – polygon in vertex representation

Output

A support vector in the given direction. If the direction has norm zero, the first vertex is returned.

Algorithm

This implementation uses a binary search algorithm when the polygon has more than 10 vertices and a brute-force search when it has 10 or fewer vertices. The brute-force search compares the projection of each vector along the given direction and runs in $O(n)$ where $n$ is the number of vertices. The binary search runs in $O(log n)$ and we follow this implementation based on an algorithm described in .

 Joseph O'Rourke, Computational Geometry in C (2nd Edition).

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Base.:∈Method
∈(x::AbstractVector, P::VPolygon)

Check whether a given point is contained in a polygon in vertex representation.

Input

• x – point/vector
• P – polygon in vertex representation

Output

true iff $x ∈ P$.

Algorithm

This implementation exploits that the polygon's vertices are sorted in counter-clockwise fashion. Under this assumption we can just check if the vertex lies on the left of each edge, using the dot product.

Examples

julia> P = VPolygon([[2.0, 3.0], [3.0, 1.0], [5.0, 1.0], [4.0, 5.0]]);

julia> [4.5, 3.1] ∈ P
false
julia> [4.5, 3.0] ∈ P
true
julia> [4.4, 3.4] ∈ P  #  point lies on the edge
true
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LazySets.an_elementMethod
an_element(P::VPolygon)

Return some element of a polygon in vertex representation.

Input

• P – polygon in vertex representation

Output

The first vertex of the polygon in vertex representation.

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Base.randMethod
rand(::Type{VPolygon}; [N]::Type{<:Real}=Float64, [dim]::Int=2,
[rng]::AbstractRNG=GLOBAL_RNG, [seed]::Union{Int, Nothing}=nothing)

Create a random polygon in vertex representation.

Input

• VPolygon – type for dispatch
• N – (optional, default: Float64) numeric type
• dim – (optional, default: 2) dimension
• rng – (optional, default: GLOBAL_RNG) random number generator
• seed – (optional, default: nothing) seed for reseeding
• num_vertices – (optional, default: -1) number of vertices of the polygon (see comment below)

Output

A random polygon in vertex representation.

Notes

The number of vertices can be controlled with the argument num_vertices. For a negative value we choose a random number in the range 3:10.

Algorithm

We follow the idea described here based on . There is also a nice video available here.

 Pavel Valtr: Probability that n random points are in convex position. Discret. Comput. Geom. 1995.

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LazySets.vertices_listMethod
vertices_list(P::VPolygon; kwargs...)

Return the list of vertices of a polygon in vertex representation.

Input

• P – polygon in vertex representation

Output

The list of vertices.

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LazySets.tohrepMethod
tohrep(P::VPolygon{N}, ::Type{HPOLYGON}=HPolygon
) where {N, HPOLYGON<:AbstractHPolygon}

Build a constraint representation of the given polygon.

Input

• P – polygon in vertex representation
• HPOLYGON – (optional, default: HPolygon) type of target polygon

Output

A polygon in constraint representation, an AbstractHPolygon.

Algorithm

The algorithm adds an edge for each consecutive pair of vertices. Since the vertices are already ordered in counter-clockwise fashion (CCW), the constraints will be sorted automatically (CCW).

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LazySets.tovrepMethod
tovrep(P::VPolygon)

Build a vertex representation of the given polygon.

Input

• P – polygon in vertex representation

Output

The same polygon instance.

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LazySets.constraints_listMethod
constraints_list(P::VPolygon)

Return the list of constraints defining a polygon in vertex representation.

Input

• P – polygon in vertex representation

Output

The list of constraints of the polygon.

Algorithm

We convert to constraint representation using tohrep.

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LazySets.translate!Method
translate!(P::VPolygon, v::AbstractVector)

Translate (i.e., shift) a polygon in vertex representation by a given vector, in-place.

Input

• P – polygon in vertex representation
• v – translation vector

Output

The polygon translated by the vector.

Algorithm

We add the vector to each vertex of the polygon.

Notes

See translate(::VPolygon, ::AbstractVector) for the out-of-place version.

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LazySets.remove_redundant_verticesMethod
remove_redundant_vertices(P::VPolygon;
[algorithm]::String="monotone_chain")

Return a polygon obtained by removing the redundant vertices of the given polygon.

Input

• P – polygon in vertex representation
• algorithm – (optional, default: "monotone_chain") the algorithm used to compute the convex hull

Output

A new polygon such that its vertices are the convex hull of the given polygon.

Algorithm

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LazySets.remove_redundant_vertices!Method
remove_redundant_vertices!(P::VPolygon;
[algorithm]::String="monotone_chain")

Remove the redundant vertices from the given polygon in-place.

Input

• P – polygon in vertex representation
• algorithm – (optional, default: "monotone_chain") the algorithm used to compute the convex hull

Output

The modified polygon whose redundant vertices have been removed.

Algorithm

A convex-hull algorithm is used to compute the convex hull of the vertices of the polygon P; see ?convex_hull for details on the available algorithms. The vertices are sorted in counter-clockwise fashion.

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SparseArrays.permuteMethod
permute(V::VPolygon, p::AbstractVector{Int})

Permute the dimensions according to a permutation vector.

Input

• P – polygon in vertex representation
• p – permutation vector

Output

The permuted polygon in vertex representation.

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LazySets.linear_mapMethod
linear_map(M::AbstractMatrix, P::VPolygon; [apply_convex_hull]::Bool=false)

Concrete linear map of a polygon in vertex representation.

Input

• M – matrix
• P – polygon in vertex representation
• apply_convex_hull – (optional; default: false) flag to apply a convex-hull operation (only relevant for higher-dimensional maps)

Output

The type of the result depends on the dimension. in 1D it is an interval, in 2D it is a VPolygon, and in all other cases it is a VPolytope.

Algorithm

This implementation uses the internal _linear_map_vrep method.

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Inherited from LazySet:

Inherited from AbstractPolytope:

Inherited from AbstractPolygon: