# A Hybrid Reachability Algorithm Using Zonotopes

## Introduction

In this section we present an algorithm implemented using `LazySets`

that computes the reach sets of a hybrid system of linear ordinary differential equations (ODE). This algorithm is an extension of the one presented in A Reachability Algorithm Using Zonotopes.

We consider a simple case here where modes do not have invariants and transitions do not have updates. In set-based analysis like ours, it may make sense to take a transition as soon as one state in the current set of states can take it. Note that this is not equivalent to *must* semantics of hybrid automata (also called *urgent transitions*), which is defined on single trajectories. We also offer the usual *may* transitions interpretation.

## Hybrid algorithm

The hybrid algorithm maintains a queue of triples $(m, X, t)$ where $m$ is a mode, $X$ is a set of states, and $t$ is a time point. For each element in the queue the algorithm calls the Continuous algorithm to compute the reachable states in the current mode $m$, starting in the current states $X$ at time $t$. The result is a flowpipe, i.e., a sequence of sets of states. For each of those sets we check intersection with the guards of $m$'s outgoing transitions. Depending on the transition semantics, we add the discrete successors to the queue and continue with the next iteration until the queue is empty.

```
using Plots, LazySets
function reach_hybrid(As, Ts, init, δ, μ, T, max_order, instant_transitions)
# initialize queue with initial mode and states at time t=0
queue = [(init[1], init[2], 0.)]
res = Tuple{LazySet, Int}[]
while !isempty(queue)
init, loc, t = pop!(queue)
println("currently in location $loc at time $t")
R = reach_continuous(As[loc], init, δ, μ, T-t, max_order)
found_transition = false
for i in 1:length(R)-1
S = R[i]
push!(res, (S, loc))
for (guard, tgt_loc) in Ts[loc]
if !is_intersection_empty(S, guard)
new_t = t + δ * i
push!(queue, (S, tgt_loc, new_t))
found_transition = true
println("transition $loc -> $tgt_loc at time $new_t")
end
end
if instant_transitions && found_transition
break
end
end
if !instant_transitions || !found_transition && length(R) > 0
push!(res, (R[end], loc))
end
end
return res
end
```

### Continuous algorithm

This is basically the same implementation as outlined in the section A Reachability Algorithm Using Zonotopes, only that this time we use concrete operations on zonotopes.

```
function reach_continuous(A, X0, δ, μ, T, max_order)
# bloating factors
Anorm = norm(A, Inf)
α = (expm(δ*Anorm) - 1 - δ*Anorm)/norm(X0, Inf)
β = (expm(δ*Anorm) - 1)*μ/Anorm
# discretized system
n = size(A, 1)
ϕ = expm(δ*A)
N = floor(Int, T/δ)
# preallocate array
R = Vector{LazySet}(N)
if N == 0
return R
end
# initial reach set in the time interval [0, δ]
ϕp = (I+ϕ)/2
ϕm = (I-ϕ)/2
c = X0.center
gens = hcat(ϕp * X0.generators, ϕm * c, ϕm * X0.generators)
R[1] = minkowski_sum(Zonotope(ϕp * c, gens),
Zonotope(zeros(n), Matrix((α + β)*I, n, n)))
if order(R[1]) > max_order
R[1] = reduce_order(R[1], max_order)
end
# set recurrence for [δ, 2δ], ..., [(N-1)δ, Nδ]
ballβ = Zonotope(zeros(n), Matrix(β*I, n, n))
for i in 2:N
R[i] = minkowski_sum(linear_map(ϕ, R[i-1]), ballβ)
if order(R[i]) > max_order
R[i] = reduce_order(R[i], max_order)
end
end
return R
end
```

### Plotting results

For illustration purposes it is helpful to plot the flowpipes in different colors, depending on the current mode. The following function does that for 2-mode models.

```
function plot_res(res)
p = plot()
for i in 1:length(res)
if res[i][2] == 1
c = "blue"
elseif res[i][2] == 2
c = "red"
end
plot!(p, reduce_order(res[i][1], 2), color=c, alpha=0.1)
end
return p
end
```

## Example

We consider an extension of the example presented in *Reachability of uncertain linear systems using zonotopes*, A. Girard, HSCC. Vol. 5. 2005 to a hybrid system with two modes $\ell_i$, $i = 1, 2$, with initial states $[0.9, 1.1] \times [-0.1, 0.1]$ and uncertain inputs from a set $u$ with $\mu = \Vert u \Vert_\infty = 0.001$.

The dynamics matrices $A_i$ are defined as follows:

We add a transition $t_i$ from mode $\ell_i$ to $\ell_{3-i}$ with a hyperplane guard $g_i$:

`LazySets`

offers an order reduction function for zonotopes, which we used here with an upper bound of 10 generators. We plot the reachable states for the time interval $[0, 4]$ and time step $δ = 0.001$.

```
# dynamics
A1 = [-1 -4; 4 -1]
A2 = [1 4; -4 -1]
As = [A1, A2]
# transitions
t1 = [(Hyperplane([1., 0.], -0.5), 2)]
t2 = [(Hyperplane([0., 1.], -0.3), 1)]
Ts = [t1, t2]
# initial condition
X0 = Zonotope([1.0, 0.0], Matrix(0.1*I, 2, 2))
init_loc = 1
init = (X0, init_loc)
# input uncertainty
μ = 0.001
# discretization step
δ = 0.001
# time bound
T = 4.
# maximum order of zonotopes
max_order = 10
# take transitions only the first time they are enabled?
instant_transitions = true
# run analysis
res = reach_hybrid(As, Ts, init, δ, μ, T, max_order, instant_transitions)
# plot result
plot_res(res)
```